Today the Supreme Court heard oral argument in Sessions v Dimaya. Most people have probably never heard of this little case, but in the world of criminal defense and immigration law Sessions v Dimaya has the potential to be a landmark decision.
Sessions v Dimaya – It’s All About The “Residual Clause”
At issue in Dimaya is whether 18 U.S.C. 16(b) is unconstitutionally vague. Section 16 provides a generic definition of the term “crime of violence” for the entire United States Code:
The term “crime of violence” means—(a) an offense that has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another, or(b) any other offense that is a felony and that, by its nature, involves a substantial risk that physical force against the person or property of another may be used in the course of committing the offense.
Sessions v Dimaya – The Reargument
Dimaya has been hanging around the Supreme Court for a long time. The Court heard argument in the case in January 2017. The Court, however, was unable to resolve the case by the end of its 2016 term. The justices were split 4-4. Justice Gorsuch did not cast a vote because he was not on the Court when the case was originally argued. So the Court decided to schedule the case for re-argument–a real rarity. That argument was held October 2, 2017.
All eyes were on Justice Gorsuch. And he did not disappoint.
The Government began its argument by trying to draw a distinction between the “fair notice” requirement for criminal statutes and “fair notice” for civil statutes, but Justice Gorsuch was quick to shut this argument down.
JUSTICE GORSUCH: And isn’t it really important in the civil context, too, when we have so many civil laws today, and they’re often hidden away in places like the Federal Register and other — other fine reads like that?
Next the Government tried to argue that it was permissible for Congress to write 16(b) is such an expansive way. Again, Justice Gorsuch shut the Government down.
JUSTICE GORSUCH: Really? Even when it’s going to put people in prison and deprive them of liberty and result in deportation, we shouldn’t expect Congress to be able to specify those who are captured by its laws?
When Dimaya’s counsel was giving his argument, Justice Gorsuch continued with his earlier comments to the Government’s counsel:
JUSTICE GORSUCH: the consequences in many civil matters can be very grave, more so even than a lot of criminal penalties. Civil forfeiture, take a man’s home, his entire livelihood, deport him. And I can think of lots of other examples that can be graver than misdemeanor offense on the books today.
And when asked where to draw the line between appropriate amounts of vagueness between civil and criminal statutes, Justice Gorsuch offered his own, really simple test:
JUSTICE GORSUCH: What do you think about this line? Life, liberty, or property … It’s right out of the text of the Due Process Clause itself.
Sessions v. Dimaya – The Likely Outcome
Given the tenor of the argument today, I will be surprised if Justice Gorsuch does not cast the deciding vote that strikes down 18 U.S.C. 16(b). And when that happens, well, the fun really begins.
Stay tuned folks.
[pdf-embedder url=”https://sentencing.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Dimaya-Oral-Argument-Transcript.pdf” title=”Dimaya – Oral Argument Transcript”]